At the beginning of the 20th century Bukhara was called ”a haven of Islam” and was the center of the reactionary Muslim clergy. There were about 170 large and small madrasas in Bukhara, which were divided into three categories: “A’la” (higher), “Awsat“ (middle) and “Edini” (lower). They have served up to ten thousand students, teachers and imams. In Muslim countries, Madrasah is an institution of higher education. The madrasah functioned as a theological seminary and law school, with a curriculum centred on the Qurʾān. In addition to Islāmic theology and law, Arabic grammar and literature, mathematics, logic, and, in some cases, natural science were studied in madrasahs.
Education in madrassas of Bukhara lasted for about twenty years. After the first three to four years of studi in the madrassa, student (mullobacha) received the title muazzin (or Sufi). After a year or two, he received the title of dahiyak, which gave him the right to scholarship.